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August says hello and from now on, with every passing day of your summer fun, your unfinished homework is becoming… Read more…. The researchers tested a second model with perceived responsibility predicting self-efficacy.
They found a fit nearly identical to the first model, signifying that the prediction may flow in either direction. Finally, they tested a third model because homework quality and the two self-beliefs were assessed simultaneously. The two self-beliefs were the causal variables, homework was the mediating variable, and grade was the outcome variable. Second, the data indicated that homework is important at the college level as well. The results show significant mediational roles for self-efficacy for learning and perceived responsibility of homework on course grades.
The researchers suggested that as the college students were in their junior year, they were more likely to assume responsibility for their work compared to high school students.
The data are correlational; therefore, it is not possible to infer causal results. Furthermore, there were no data on instructional support for students to complete their homework, and it is possible that instructional support at the college level may lead to enhanced self-regulated behaviors and motivational beliefs. The participants were 58 at-risk college freshmen.
At-risk students often fail to do their homework because of a lack of adequate resources and also a lack of self-discipline. These at-risk students may receive interventions to help them avoid failures, but these programs do not develop the motivational beliefs and self-regulatory behaviors necessary for academic success Bembenutty, In this study, the measures were academic delay of gratification e.
Bembenutty examined outcome expectancy e. Bembenutty also examined homework measures, which included frequency of math homework completion e. In addition, students completed a Homework Log to report homework activities. The researcher obtained midterm and final course grades from the instructors. From the homework log data, Bembenutty examined whether students set general or specific goals.
This study has numerous strengths. First, the results show it is possible to incorporate an array of self-regulated behaviors in homework activities and help at-risk college students. Second, the findings on goal setting are consistent with existing literature that supports the correlation between setting specific goals and higher academic achievement Zimmerman, Third, the use of the homework log reveals how students managed their time, inhibited distractions, delayed gratification, and increased self-satisfaction during homework completion.
Although the sample size was adequate to determine relationships among the variables, a larger sample size would improve the power of statistical analysis. Second, only math was evaluated. It is important to evaluate other subject areas in the future to assess the motivational and self-regulatory behaviors. Finally, the population was at-risk students at a 2-year college; therefore, the results may not generalize to traditional achieving and high-achieving students at both 2- and 4-year colleges.
In summary, these two studies at the college level add to those at both elementary and middle-high school level to demonstrate that during homework activities regular-achieving students and at-risk students engage in a myriad of self-regulatory behaviors and motivational beliefs to help them complete the assignments. For elementary school students, assignments that are shorter and easy to complete would help create favorable attitudes toward school and learning. The duration and complexity of homework can change as children advance to higher grades.
Thus, teachers should have clear goals and expectations for homework completion, and these should be communicated to students and their parents. To help students develop time management skills and self-reflection, teachers can use a homework checklist with items such as a the time students started and completed homework, b how they motivated themselves during homework completion, and c how they avoided distractions.
Moreover, teachers can use homework logs where students can record their behaviors during homework completion. Teachers can use the information from the logs to show students their strengths and help them overcome possible weaknesses. At the middle and high school level, teachers can model and provide students with explicit instructions on how to engage in effective homework behaviors, such as organizing the workspace, setting priorities, managing time, expending effort, avoiding distractions, monitoring motivation, and managing unwanted emotions Xu, Families in rural settings should pay particular attention to their children to help them maintain motivation during homework.
Parental involvement in homework may promote the development of cognitive, affective, and behavioral strategies such as goal setting, planning, time management, attentiveness, and responsibility, all of which are necessary in homework completion and academic achievement Bempechat, ; Zimmerman, At the college level, assigning and encouraging students to complete homework can improve their self-efficacy beliefs for learning, thereby enabling them to take more responsibility for their academic achievement.
Instructors should use questionnaires and homework logs to help struggling at-risk students manage time, inhibit distractions, delay gratification, and remain motivated during homework activities. Assignments that are tailored to the interest and achievement level of struggling students may enhance motivation, effort, and achievement. Self-regulatory measures should be studied in elementary grades to understand the behaviors students engage in while completing homework and how homework impacts achievement.
Apart from the fourth-grade study, the other four studies were correlational. More intervention studies would complement the present research. The issue of causality can be addressed by assigning teachers and students to different treatments in carefully designed studies.
Apart from mathematics, reading, and language arts, there is a need for homework research on foreign languages and the sciences. Consideration of these academic subjects would facilitate studying self-regulation processes students engage in while learning, such as strategy use, monitoring performance, and self-beliefs.
Finally, greater research is needed in training teachers and parents to facilitate homework completion. Such instruction can help children and struggling adolescents develop a range of self-regulatory behaviors and improve academic performance.
Using empirically validated self-regulatory scales such as SELF and HMS, teachers can develop profiles that can serve as a basis for the development of self-regulatory behaviors during homework experiences. The primary goal of this article was to investigate the role of homework on the development of self-regulation processes.
The findings showed positive relationships between homework activities and self-efficacy, self-reflection, responsibility for learning, maintaining focus, managing the environment, inhibiting distractions, delaying gratification, and managing time. The second objective was to examine evidence across various grade levels through college.
The experimental study with fourth graders showed that students can be trained to develop these self-regulation skills. A look at the condition of rural education research: Setting a direction for future research. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 20 6 , 1— Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28, — Self-regulation of homework completion.
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Does homework improve academic achievement? A synthesis of research, — Review of Educational Research, 76, 1— Looking at homework differently. The Elementary School Journal, , — Components of fostering self-regulated learning among students. A meta-analysis on intervention studies at primary and secondary school level. Metacognition and Learning, 3, — Grade, gender, and achievement-level differences.
Learning and Individual Differences , 19, — The mediating role of self-regulatory beliefs. Metacognition and Learning, 4, 97— High-stakes testing, homework, and gaming the system.
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Contemporary Educational Psychology , 30, 96— Hierarchical linear models 2nd ed. Evaluation of a classroom based training to improve self-regulation in time management tasks during homework activities with fourth graders. The homework-achievement relation reconsidered: Differentiating homework time, homework frequency, and homework effort. Learning and Instruction, 17, — The relationship between homework and achievement—Still much of a mystery.
Educational Psychology Review, 15, — Validation of scores on the homework management scale for high school students. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 68, — Validation of scores on the homework management scale for middle school students. Elementary School Journal, , 82— School location, student achievement, and homework management reported by middle school students.
The School Community Journal, 19 , 27— The relationship between parental involvement, self-regulated learning, and reading achievement of fifth graders: Social Psychological Education , 13, — Academic studying and the development of personal skill: Educational Psychologist , 33, 73— A social cognitive perspective.
The trial and triumph of adolescence. Investigating self-regulation and motivation: Historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. American Education Research Journal, 45, — Beyond achievement to self-efficacy. Homework practices and academic achievement: The mediating role of self-efficacy and perceived responsibility beliefs. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 30 , — Permission to reprint this article was granted by Prufrock Press, Inc. This article is provided as a service of the Davidson Institute for Talent Development, a c 3 nonprofit dedicated to supporting profoundly gifted young people 18 and under.
All information presented is for informational purposes only and is solely the opinion of and the responsibility of the author. Although reasonable effort is made to present accurate information, the Davidson Institute makes no guarantees of any kind, including as to accuracy or completeness. Use of such information is at the sole risk of the reader. How to Apply Davidson Fellows Past Fellows Overview Student Profiles Staff.
Eligibility Tips for Applying Tuition and Fees. Living on Campus Activities. The Important Role of Homework This article takes a look at the relationship between homework and self-regulation from the elementary grades to college. Homework and Self-Regulation Self-regulation researchers seek to answer the question, how do students become self-directed in managing their learning? College Level Extending the research accomplished with high school girls, Kitsantas and Zimmerman conducted a study with male and female college students.
Conclusion The primary goal of this article was to investigate the role of homework on the development of self-regulation processes. Changing the homework default.
With good time management, students know how much time they have, how long it will take to get assignments done, and what they can accomplish in the time they have. This gives them more breathing room, which reduces the feeling of being rushed, which in turn leads to less frustration and stress.
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Time management is an important skill for students and families, as having a sense of how long homework (or any school project) will take helps to put an end to last-minute rushes and to the stress of not having enough time to complete an assignment. Does homework help or hinder student learning—and which students, .. a sense of responsibility, and help students learn time management,Â It's My Life. .
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