Inferential statistics use probability theory to either predict the likely occurrence of values using a set of known values , or to assess the likelihood that any pattern or trend you see in the data is not due to chance.
The function provides a measure of the pattern or relationship. You then perform a statistical test on this measure to determine whether it is significant at some level of confidence. In the example below, the map on the left shows clusters of census tracts having a high number of senior citizens orange or a low number blue , at a 90 percent level of probability; the right map shows clusters at a 99 percent level of probability.
Spatial Analyst and Geostatistical Analyst. A core set of descriptive statistics that summarize the values for a single field is available from several locations in ArcGIS for Desktop —the table window in ArcMap, the table preview tab in ArcCatalog, and the Statistics toolset within the Analysis toolbox.
ArcMap table window or ArcCatalog table preview tab. To summarize a field by one or more other fields for example, to count the number of parcels in each land-use class, sum the area in each land-use class, or find the average parcel size in each class , use the Summarize option on the ArcMap table window or the Frequency tool in the Statistics toolset in the Analysis toolbox.
The Spatial Statistics toolbox contains a number of statistical routines for analyzing the distribution of a set of features, analyzing patterns, and identifying clusters. The Spatial Analyst includes several statistical functions that can be used to analyze rasters, primarily to summarize attribute values and assign the summary statistics to cells in a new raster layer.
These are located in several different toolsets with the Spatial Analyst toolbox. Calculates the specified statistic for each cell based on multiple inputs. Summarizes the values for a raster within a defined neighborhood around each cell and assigns the value to that cell in the output raster. Summarizes values for point feature attributes within a defined neighborhood and assigns values to cells in the output raster.
Summarizes values for line feature attributes within a defined neighborhood and assigns values to cells in the output raster. Summarizes values of a raster surface by categories or classes zones of the input raster or polygon dataset. The Geostatistical Analyst —while focusing on the creation of surface from a set of sample points—also contains a set of tools for visual exploration of data values using charts and graphs. These are often used prior to surface creation to decide which parameters to use for a specific set of data but can also be used generally to explore your dataset.
The tools allow you to explore the distribution of values, whether there is a directional trend in the data, and whether there are relationships between two attributes for example, to see if the values vary together or inversely.
The tools are available from the Explore Data option on the Geostatistical Analyst toolbar. Arc GIS for Desktop. Uses of statistical analysis Types of statistical analysis Statistical analysis functions.
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